KVM虚拟化安装部署及管理教程

1.kvm部署

1.1 kvm安装

//关闭防火墙和selinux
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl disable --now firewalld.service 
Removed /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.
[root@kvm ~]# sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config 
[root@kvm ~]# reboot

//下载epel源和工具包
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install epel-release vim wget net-tools unzip zip gcc gcc-c++

//验证CPU是否支持KVM;如果结果中有vmx(Intel)或svm(AMD)字样,就说明CPU的支持的
[root@kvm ~]# egrep -o 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo

//安装kvm
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install qemu-kvm qemu-kvm-tools qemu-img virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-install virt-viewer bridge-utils libguestfs-tools

//桥接网卡,用br0来桥接ens160网卡
[root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-ens33 ifcfg-br0
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br0 
TYPE=Bridge
DEVICE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=br0
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.237.131
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.237.2
DNS1=114.114.114.114
DNS2=8.8.8.8
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-ens33 
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=ens33
DEVICE=ens33
ONBOOT=yes
BRIDGE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no

//重启网络
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart network
[root@kvm ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:7b:10:a5 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.237.131/24 brd 192.168.237.255 scope global br0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe7b:10a5/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
5: virbr0-nic: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:1c:33:d6 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

//启动服务
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now libvirtd

//验证安装结果
[root@kvm ~]# lsmod|grep kvm
kvm_intel             188740  0 
kvm                   637289  1 kvm_intel
irqbypass              13503  1 kvm

//测试
[root@kvm ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id    名称                         状态
----------------------------------------------------

[root@kvm ~]# virsh --version
4.5.0
[root@kvm ~]# virt-install --version
1.5.0
[root@kvm ~]# ln -s /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
[root@kvm ~]# ll /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 10月 20 23:14 /usr/bin/qemu-kvm -> /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm

//查看网桥信息
[root@kvm ~]# brctl show
bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
br0             8000.000c297b10a5       no              ens33
virbr0          8000.5254001c33d6       yes             virbr0-nic

1.2 kvm web管理界面安装

kvm 的 web 管理界面是由 webvirtmgr 程序提供的。

//安装依赖包
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install git python-pip libvirt-python libxml2-python python-websockify supervisor nginx python-devel
//从github上下载webvirtmgr代码
[root@kvm ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@kvm src]# git clone git://github.com/retspen/webvirtmgr.git
正克隆到 'webvirtmgr'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 5614, done.
remote: Total 5614 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 5614
接收对象中: 100% (5614/5614), 2.97 MiB | 29.00 KiB/s, done.
处理 delta 中: 100% (3606/3606), done.
//安装webvirtmgr
[root@kvm src]# cd webvirtmgr/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# pip install -r requirements.txt 
Collecting django==1.5.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/38/49/93511c5d3367b6b21fc2995a0e53399721afc15e4cd6eb57be879ae13ad4/Django-1.5.5.tar.gz (8.1MB)
    100% |????????????????????????????????| 8.1MB 49kB/s 
......
//检查sqlite3是否安装
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python
Python 2.7.5 (default, Nov 16 2020, 22:23:17) 
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-44)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import sqlite3
>>> exit()
//初始化账号信息
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python manage.py syncdb
WARNING:root:No local_settings file found.
Creating tables ...
Creating table auth_permission
Creating table auth_group_permissions
Creating table auth_group
Creating table auth_user_groups
Creating table auth_user_user_permissions
Creating table auth_user
Creating table django_content_type
Creating table django_session
Creating table django_site
Creating table servers_compute
Creating table instance_instance
Creating table create_flavor
You just installed Django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
Would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes
Username (leave blank to use 'root'): admin
Email address: 123@qq.com
Password: 
Password (again): 
Superuser created successfully.
Installing custom SQL ...
Installing indexes ...
Installed 6 object(s) from 1 fixture(s)
//拷贝web网页至指定目录
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# mkdir /var/www
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# cp -r /usr/local/src/webvirtmgr /var/www/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# chown -R nginx.nginx /var/www/webvirtmgr/
//生成密钥
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/root/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:icyLAYmyxABKsogsIHmJqGjSby0ogFwf1p2zeiPwuxY root@kvm
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|O+ .  . . .      |
|/ooo o . +       |
|&*+ o .   o      |
|X+.. = . o       |
|=  o..* S        |
|. . +o.E o       |
| . .... = .      |
|       o         |
|      ...        |
+----[SHA256]-----+
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-copy-id 192.168.237.131
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
The authenticity of host '192.168.237.131 (192.168.237.131)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:/AR9dYUN0PN9LOHYWfHeUe5LgyczVMH9mYv9+2GcAbM.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:30:f6:de:5a:7d:c2:08:b5:b7:31:61:4a:4e:dd:32:73.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
root@192.168.237.131's password: 
Number of key(s) added: 1
Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.237.131'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
//配置端口转发
[root@kvm ~]# ssh 192.168.237.131 -L localhost:8000:localhost:8000 -L localhost:6080:localhost:60
Last login: Wed Oct 20 23:12:00 2021 from 192.168.237.1
[root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
State      Recv-Q Send-Q       Local Address:Port                      Peer Address:Port              
LISTEN     0      128              127.0.0.1:6080                                 *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128              127.0.0.1:8000                                 *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                      *:111                                  *:*                  
LISTEN     0      5            192.168.122.1:53                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                      *:22                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      100              127.0.0.1:25                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                  [::1]:6080                              [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                  [::1]:8000                              [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                   [::]:111                               [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                   [::]:22                                [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      100                  [::1]:25                                [::]:*                  
//配置nginx
[root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/nginx/
[root@kvm nginx]# ls
conf.d                fastcgi_params          mime.types          scgi_params           win-utf
default.d             fastcgi_params.default  mime.types.default  scgi_params.default
fastcgi.conf          koi-utf                 nginx.conf          uwsgi_params
fastcgi.conf.default  koi-win                 nginx.conf.default  uwsgi_params.default
[root@kvm nginx]# cp nginx.conf nginx.conf-bak	//备份
[root@kvm nginx]# cat nginx.conf
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;
    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;
        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;
        location / {
            root html;
            index index.html index.htm;
        }
        error_page 404 /404.html;
            location = /40x.html {
        }
        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
        }
    }
}
[root@kvm conf.d]# pwd
/etc/nginx/conf.d
[root@kvm conf.d]# vi webvirtmgr.conf
[root@kvm conf.d]# cat webvirtmgr.conf 
server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    server_name $hostname;
    #access_log /var/log/nginx/webvirtmgr_access_log;
    location /static/ {
        root /var/www/webvirtmgr/webvirtmgr;
        expires max;
    }
    location / {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $remote_addr;
        proxy_connect_timeout 600;
        proxy_read_timeout 600;
        proxy_send_timeout 600;
        client_max_body_size 1024M;
    }
}
//确保bind绑定的是本机的8000端口
[root@kvm ~]# vim /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py 
bind = '0.0.0.0:8000'		//修改此行
backlog = 2048
//启动nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now nginx
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/nginx.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service.
[root@kvm ~]# ss -anlt
State      Recv-Q Send-Q       Local Address:Port                      Peer Address:Port              
LISTEN     0      128              127.0.0.1:6080                                 *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128              127.0.0.1:8000                                 *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                      *:111                                  *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                      *:80                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      5            192.168.122.1:53                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                      *:22                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      100              127.0.0.1:25                                   *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                  [::1]:6080                              [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                  [::1]:8000                              [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                   [::]:111                               [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                   [::]:22                                [::]:*                  
LISTEN     0      100                  [::1]:25                                [::]:*                  
//设置supervisor
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/supervisord.conf 
#在最后添加下面的内容
[program:webvirtmgr]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/manage.py run_gunicorn -c /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr.log
log_stderr=true
user=nginx
[program:webvirtmgr-console]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/console/webvirtmgr-console
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr-console.log
redirect_stderr=true
user=nginx
//启动supervisor
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable --now supervisord
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/supervisord.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service.
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl status supervisord
● supervisord.service - Process Monitoring and Control Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since 三 2021-10-20 23:53:33 CST; 12s ago
  Process: 46734 ExecStart=/usr/bin/supervisord -c /etc/supervisord.conf (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 46737 (supervisord)
//配置nginx用户
[root@kvm ~]# su - nginx -s /bin/bash
-bash-4.2$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/var/lib/nginx/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
Enter same passphrase again: 
Your identification has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:S46h+CYFvCGW+6z68PXZgbKNLLdPdiPD6LmzPOpYBwI nginx@kvm
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|                 |
|                 |
|E..              |
|oo+              |
|o.o+  . S        |
| o.o.+ * .       |
|. =.* O *        |
| =oX=X * o       |
|++**%B= .        |
+----[SHA256]-----+
-bash-4.2$ touch ~/.ssh/config && echo -e "StrictHostKeyChecking=no\nUserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" >> ~/.ssh/config
-bash-4.2$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/config
-bash-4.2$ ssh-copy-id root@192.168.237.131
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.237.131' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.237.131's password: 
Number of key(s) added: 1
Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.237.131'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
-bash-4.2$ exit
登出
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[Remote libvirt SSH access]
Identity=unix-user:root
Action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
ResultAny=yes
ResultInactive=yes
ResultActive=yes
[root@kvm ~]# chown -R root.root /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart libvirtd

1.3 kvm web界面管理

通过ip地址在浏览器上访问kvm

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1.3.1 kvm连接管理

创建SSH连接:

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1.3.2 kvm存储管理

创建存储:

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进入存储:

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通过远程连接软件上传ISO镜像文件至存储目录/var/lib/libvirt/images/

[root@kvm ~]# ls /var/lib/libvirt/images/
CentOS-8.4.2105-x86_64-dvd1.iso

在 web 界面查看ISO镜像是否存在

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创建系统安装镜像

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1.3.3 kvm网络管理

添加桥接网络

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1.3.4 实例管理

实例(虚拟机)创建

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虚拟机插入光盘

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设置在 web 上访问虚拟机的密码

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启动虚拟机

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打开控制台

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安装虚拟机

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安装完成

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故障

web界面无法访问,命令行报错(accept: Too many open files)

对nginx进行配置
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 655350;		//添加此行
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx.service 

对系统参数进行设置
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/security/limits.conf
# End of file			//添加下面两行
* soft nofile 655350		
* hard nofile 655350

重启虚拟机,就能成功访问
[root@kvm ~]# reboot
作者:天外来物_ 原文地址:https://blog.csdn.net/tianwailaiwu_/article/details/120872354

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